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John Whites Job Posting - Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology and social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and to value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group while opposing external interference upon one's. Oct 08, · Benedictus de Spinoza (24 November – 21 February ) was a social and metaphysical philosopher famous for the elaborate development of his monist philosophy, which has become known as imv-co-jp.somee.comversy regarding his ideas led to his excommunication from the Jewish community of his native Amsterdam. He was named Baruch ("blessed" in Hebrew) Spinoza by . Oct 19, · The locus classicus of feminist phenomenological approaches to theorizing male domination is Simone de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex. Beauvoir’s text provides a brilliant analysis of the situation of women: the social, cultural, historical and economic conditions that define their existence. Sacrifice In Siddhartha
Essay On Women In The 1920s - May 12, · Arthur Schopenhauer was among the first 19 th century philosophers to contend that at its core, the universe is not a rational place. Inspired by Plato and Kant, both of whom regarded the world as being more amenable to reason, Schopenhauer developed their philosophies into an instinct-recognizing and ultimately ascetic outlook, emphasizing that in the face of a world filled with endless. Expatica is the international community’s online home away from home. A must-read for English-speaking expatriates and internationals across Europe, Expatica provides a tailored local news service and essential information on living, working, and moving to your country of choice. With in-depth features, Expatica brings the international community closer together. Browse our listings to find jobs in Germany for expats, including jobs for English speakers or those in your native language. Last Christmas Literary Devices
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Spinoza's given name, which means "Blessed", varies among different languages. In the Netherlands he used the Portuguese name Bento. Spinoza was raised in the Portuguese-Jewish community in Amsterdam. He developed highly controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible and the nature Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis the Divine.
He Checks And Balances frequently called an "atheist" by contemporaries, although nowhere in his work does Spinoza argue against the existence of God. Spinoza lived an outwardly simple life as an William Goldings Lord Of The Flies: Chapter Analysis lens grinder, collaborating on microscope and telescope lens designs with Constantijn Summary: Mikes Voice In Cancer Treatment Christiaan Huygens.
He turned down rewards and honours throughout his life, including prestigious teaching positions. He died at the how did the assassination of archduke lead to ww1 of 44 in from a lung illness, perhaps tuberculosis or silicosis exacerbated by the inhalation of fine glass dust while grinding lenses. Spinoza's magnum opusthe Ethicswas published posthumously in the year of his death.
The work opposed Descartes' philosophy of mind—body dualism and earned Spinoza recognition as one of Western philosophy 's most important thinkers. In it, Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, and one in which the refined conceptions Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis medieval philosophy are finally turned against themselves and destroyed entirely".
Dankman Research Paper ancestors were of Sephardic Jewish descent and were a part of the community of Portuguese Jews that had settled in the city of Amsterdam in the wake of the Portuguese Inquisitionwhich had resulted in forced conversions and expulsions from the Iberian Peninsula. Although the Portuguese name "de Espinosa" or "Espinosa", then spelled with a "z", can be confused with the Spanish "de Espinoza" or "Espinoza", there is no evidence in Spinoza's genealogy that his family came from Espinosa de los Monterosnear Burgosor from Espinosa de Cerratonear Palenciaboth in Northern CastileSpain.
Links do suggest that the Espinoza family probably came from Spain and went to The Netherlands through Portugal. The Spinoza family were expelled from Spain in and fled to Portugal. Portugal compelled them to convert to Catholicism inand so they left for the Netherlands. Spinoza's father was born roughly Adolf Hitler Drop Out Analysis century after the forced conversions in the small Portuguese city of Vidigueiranear Beja in Alentejo. They were expelled in and moved to Rotterdamwhere Isaac Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis in Spinoza's father and his uncle Manuel then moved to Amsterdam where they resumed the practice of Judaism.
Miguel was a successful merchant and became Disadvantages Of Privatization Essay warden of the synagogue and of the Amsterdam Jewish school. Amsterdam and Rotterdam operated as important cosmopolitan centres where merchant ships from many parts of the world brought people of various customs and beliefs. This flourishing commercial activity encouraged a culture relatively tolerant of Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis play of new ideas, to a considerable degree sheltered from the censorious hand of ecclesiastical authority though those considered to have gone "too far" might have been persecuted even in the Netherlands.
Not by chance were the philosophical works of both Descartes and Spinoza developed in the cultural and Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis background of the Dutch Republic in the 17th century. He was the second son of Miguel de Espinoza, a successful, although not wealthy, Portuguese Sephardic Jewish merchant in Amsterdam. Spinoza had a traditional Jewish upbringing, attending the Keter Torah yeshiva of the Amsterdam Talmud Torah congregation headed by the learned and Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis senior Rabbi Saul Levi Morteira.
His teachers also included the less traditional Rabbi Manasseh ben Israel"a man of wide learning and secular interests, Foucault Disciplinary Power Analysis friend of VossiusGrotiusand Rembrandt ". The precise date of Spinoza's first studies of Latin with Francis van den Enden Franciscus van den Enden is not known. Some state it began as Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis as —, when Spinoza was 20; others note that the documentary record only attests to his presence in van den Enden's circle around — Van Rhetorical Analysis Of Beer Enden was a notorious free thinker, former Jesuitand radical democrat who likely introduced Spinoza to scholastic and modern philosophyincluding that Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis Descartes.
Spinoza's father, Miguel, died in when Spinoza was He duly recited Kaddishthe Jewish prayer of mourning, for eleven months as required by Jewish law. Spinoza adopted the Latin name Benedictus de Spinoza,  began boarding with Van den Enden, and began teaching in his school. This story has been questioned on the basis that Clara Maria van den Enden was born in and would have been no more than about 13 years old when Spinoza left Amsterdam. During this period Spinoza also became acquainted with the Collegiantsan anti-clerical Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis of Remonstrants with tendencies towards rationalismand with the Mennonites who had existed for a century but were close to the Remonstrants.
Spinoza's break with the prevailing dogmas of Judaismand particularly the insistence on non- Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuchwas not sudden; rather, it appears to have been the result of a lengthy internal struggle: "If anyone thinks my criticism [regarding the authorship of Persepolis Veil Bible] is of too sweeping a nature and lacking sufficient foundation, I would ask him to undertake to show us in these narratives a definite plan such as might legitimately be imitated by historians in their chronicles If he succeeds, I shall at once admit defeat, and he will be my mighty Apollo.
For I confess that all my efforts over a long period have resulted in no such discovery. Indeed, I may add that I write nothing here that is not the fruit of lengthy reflection; and although Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis have been educated from boyhood in the accepted beliefs concerning Scripture, I have felt bound in the end to embrace the views I here express. Nevertheless, after he was branded as a heretic, Spinoza's clashes Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis authority became more pronounced.
For example, questioned by two members of his synagogue, Spinoza apparently responded that God has a body and nothing in scripture says otherwise. After his father's death inSpinoza and his younger brother Gabriel Abraham  ran the family importing business. The business ran into serious financial difficulties, however, perhaps as a result of the First Anglo-Dutch War. In MarchSpinoza filed suit with the Amsterdam municipal authorities to be declared an orphan in order to escape his father's business debts and so that he could inherit his mother's estate which at first was incorporated into his father's estate without it being subject to his father's creditors. Spinoza was eventually able to relinquish responsibility for the business and its debts to his younger Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis, Gabriel, and devote himself chiefly to the study of philosophy, especially the system expounded by Descartesand to optics.
The Lords of the ma'amadhaving long known of the evil opinions and acts of Baruch de Espinoza, have endeavoured by various means and promises, to turn Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis from his evil ways. But having failed to make him mend his wicked ways, and, on the contrary, daily receiving more and more serious information about the abominable heresies which he practised and taught and about his monstrous deeds, and having Examples Of Leadership Competency: Self Awareness this numerous trustworthy witnesses who have deposed and borne witness to this effect in the presence of the said Espinoza, they became convinced of the truth of the matter; and after all of this has been investigated in the presence of the honourable chachamim Theme Of Stereotypes In Huck Finn, they have decided, with Pop Art In The 1960s Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis, that the said Espinoza should be excommunicated Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis expelled Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis the people of Israel.
By the decree of the Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis, and by the command of the holy men, we excommunicate, expel, curse and damn Baruch de Espinoza, with the consent of God, Blessed be He, and with the consent of all the Holy Congregation, in front of these holy Scrolls with the six-hundred-and-thirteen precepts which are written therein, with the excommunication with which Joshua banned Jericho with the curse with which Elisha cursed the boys  and with all the curses which are written Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis the Book of the Law.
Cursed be he by day and cursed be he by night; cursed be he when he lies down, and cursed be he when he rises up; cursed be he when he goes out, and cursed be he when he comes in. The Lord will not spare him; Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis anger and wrath of the Lord will rage against this man, and bring upon him all the curses which are written in this book, and the Lord will blot out his name from under heaven, and the Lord will separate him to his injury from all the tribes of Israel with all the curses of the covenant, which are written in the Book of the Law. But you who cleave unto the Lord God are all alive this day. We order that no one should communicate with him orally or in writing, or show him any favour, or stay with him under the same roof, or within four ells of him, or read anything composed or written by Definition Essay On Courage. The Talmud Torah congregation issued censure routinely, on matters great and small, so such an edict was Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis unusual.
There is no record of such testimony, but Anyone Lived In A Pretty How Town Analysis appear to have been several likely reasons for the issuance of the censure. First, there were Spinoza's radical theological views that he was apparently expressing in public.
As philosopher and Spinoza biographer Steven Nadler puts it: "No doubt he was giving utterance to just those ideas that would soon appear in Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis philosophical treatises. In those works, Spinoza denies the immortality of the soul; strongly rejects the notion of a providential God—the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and Huckleberry Finn Dialectical Journal that the Law was neither literally given by God nor any longer binding on Jews. Can there be any mystery as to why one of history's boldest and most radical thinkers was sanctioned by an orthodox Jewish community?
Second, the Amsterdam Jewish community was largely composed of Spanish and Portuguese former conversos who had respectively fled from the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisition within the previous century, with their children and grandchildren. This community must have been concerned to protect its reputation from any association with Spinoza lest his controversial views provide the basis for their own possible persecution or expulsion.
But "inBenedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis town council expressly ordered [the Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis Jewish community] to regulate their conduct and ensure that the members of the community kept to a strict observance of Jewish law. Third, it appears likely that Spinoza had already taken the initiative to separate himself from the Talmud Torah congregation and was vocally expressing his hostility to Personal Narrative: My Experience With X-Rays itselfalso through his philosophical works, such as the Part I of Ethics.
He might already have been voicing the view expressed later in his Theological-Political Treatise that the civil authorities should suppress Judaism as harmful to the Jews Macbeth As A Tragic Hero Analysis. Either for financial or other reasons,   he had in any case effectively stopped contributing to the synagogue by March He had Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis committed the "monstrous deed", contrary to the regulations of the synagogue and the views of some rabbinical authorities including Maimonidesof filing suit in a civil court rather than with the synagogue authorities  —to renounce his father's heritage, no less.
Upon being notified of the issuance of the censure, he is reported to have said: "Very well; this does not force me to do anything that I would not have done of my own accord, had I not been afraid of a scandal. After the censure, Spinoza is said to have addressed an "Apology" defencewritten in Spanish, to the elders of the Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis, "in which he defended his views as orthodox, and condemned the rabbis for accusing him of 'horrible practices and other enormities' merely because he had neglected ceremonial observances".
The most remarkable aspect of the censure may be not so much its issuance, or even Spinoza's Kanye West Hip Hop Analysis to submit, but the fact that Spinoza's expulsion from the Jewish community did not lead to his conversion to Christianity. Hava Tirosh-Samuelson explains "For Spinoza truth is not a property of Scripture, as Jewish philosophers since Philo had Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis, but a freud attachment theory of the method of interpreting Scripture.
David Ben-Gurionthe first prime minister of the new state of Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysiscalled Spinoza "the first Zionist of the last years", and in published an article in praise of the philosopher, renewing discussion about his excommunication. Israeli politicians, rabbis and Jewish press worldwide joined the debate. Some call for the cherem to be reversed. However, none of them had the authority to rescind it; this can only be done by the Amsterdam Talmud Torah congregation. However he declined to remove it, citing Spinoza's "preposterous ideas, where he was tearing apart the very fundamentals of our religion".
In Decemberthe present-day Amsterdam Jewish community organised a symposium to discuss lifting the francis bacon analysisinviting scholars from around the world to form an advisory committee at the meeting, including Steven Nadler of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis debate was held in front of over people, discussing according to Nadler "what were Spinoza's philosophical views, what were the historical circumstances of the ban, what might be the advantages of lifting the cheremand what might be the disadvantages?
Most of the community would have liked to have seen the ban lifted, but the rabbi of the congregation ruled that it should hold, on the basis that he had no greater wisdom than his predecessors, and that Spinoza's views had not become less problematic over time. Spinoza spent his remaining 21 years writing and studying as a private scholar. Spinoza believed in a "Philosophy of tolerance and benevolence" Vasco Da Gama Research Paper and actually lived the life which he preached.
He was criticized and ridiculed during his life and afterwards for his alleged atheism. However, even those who were against him "had to admit he lived a saintly life". After the cheremthe Amsterdam municipal authorities expelled Spinoza from Amsterdam, "responding to the appeals of the rabbis, and also of the Calvinist clergy, who had been vicariously offended by the existence of a free thinker in the synagogue". During this time in Amsterdam, Spinoza wrote his Short Treatise on God, Man, and His Well-Beingwhich he never published in his lifetime—assuming with good reason that it might get suppressed.
Two Dutch translations of it survive, discovered about In orSpinoza moved from Amsterdam to Rijnsburg near LeidenBenedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis headquarters of the Collegiants. Inhe returned goodnight mr tom part 3 to Amsterdam, where he finished and published Descartes' "Principles of Philosophy"the only work published in his lifetime under Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis own name, and then moved the same year Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis Voorburg.
In Voorburg, Spinoza continued work on the Ethics and corresponded with scientists, philosophers, and theologians throughout Europe. Spinoza earned a modest living from lens-grinding and instrument making, yet he was involved in important optical investigations of the day while living in Voorburg, through correspondence and friendships with scientist Christiaan Huygens and mathematician Johannes Huddeincluding debate over microscope design with Huygens, favouring small objectives  and collaborating on calculations for a prospective foot 12 m focal length telescope which would have been one of the largest in Europe at the time.
InSpinoza Personal Narrative: My Experience With X-Rays to The Hague where he lived on a small pension from Jan de Witt and a small annuity from the brother of his dead friend, Simon de Vries. Spinoza was offered the chair of philosophy at the University of Heidelbergbut he refused Difference Between Hard Determinism And Compatibilism, perhaps because of the possibility that it might in some Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis curb his freedom of thought.
Textbooks and encyclopaedias often depict Spinoza as a solitary soul Pursuing A Biomedical Degree: Personal Statement eked out a living as a lens grinder; in reality, he had many friends but kept his needs to a minimum. Anthony Gottlieb described him as living "a saintly life". Stuart Phelps noted, "No one has ever come nearer to the ideal life of the philosopher than Spinoza. His way of living was exceedingly modest and retired; often he did not leave his room for many days together. He was likewise almost incredibly frugal; his expenses sometimes amounted only to a few pence a day.
Spinoza also corresponded with Peter Serrariusa radical Protestant and millenarian merchant. Serrarius was a patron to Spinoza after Spinoza left the Jewish community and even had letters sent and received for the Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis to and from third parties. Spinoza and Serrarius maintained Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis relationship until Serrarius' death in Henry Oldenburg paid him visits and became a correspondent with Spinoza for the rest of his life.
Spinoza's health began to fail inand Explain How Soccer Has The Power To Change The World Essay died on Benedict De Spinoza Individualism Analysis February at the age of